Inflammation is the body’s natural response to injury and infection.
However, chronic inflammation — which may be influenced by diet, inadequate sleep, and high stress levels — is linked to overweight and obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, heart disease, and cancer (1Trusted Source, 2Trusted Source, 3Trusted Source).
Fortunately, studies have shown that some cultural foods common to the Caribbean region, as well as overall lifestyle habits, fight inflammation.
Here are 8 anti-inflammatory foods common to the Caribbean and its diasporas.
The Caribbean has a longstanding history of producing quality cocoa products, with the Trinidad & Tobago Fine Cocoa Company among the oldest.
Flavanols — antioxidants found in cocoa products — have anti-inflammatory properties that may protect blood vessel health, potentially reducing your risk of developing heart disease and stroke. They may also improve exercise performance and recovery (4Trusted Source, 5Trusted Source, 6Trusted Source, 7Trusted Source).
Furthermore, flavanol-rich cocoa and dark chocolate guard against blood vessel damage from oxidative stress, which occurs with age and in people who smoke, by increasing nitric oxide production (8Trusted Source, 9Trusted Source).
Nitric oxide is a compound that may reduce inflammation and support healthy blood flow (10Trusted Source).
The higher the percentage of cocoa that dark chocolate contains, the more flavanols and greater antioxidant properties it has — although it may be slightly less palatable, as high percentages of cocoa increase bitterness (7Trusted Source).
Enjoy dark chocolate bites for a snack or sip a warm cup of cocoa tea at night.
SUMMARYFlavanols in cocoa and dark chocolate may reduce inflammation and support your blood vessels, potentially reducing your risk of developing heart disease and stroke.
Vitamin C fights inflammation by reducing the number of free radicals — the by-products of metabolism — in the body. Current research is exploring its potential to reduce the risk of developing some cancers (15Trusted Source, 16Trusted Source).
The fruit blooms between the spring and autumn and may be enjoyed raw or made into a juice.
SUMMARYWest Indian cherry (acerola) is a potent source of the anti-inflammatory antioxidant vitamin C. It provides up to 22 times the daily recommended value.
Peppers of the capsicum family, including pimento pepper (Capsicum annum), contain phytochemical compounds that may have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties (17Trusted Source).
In animal studies, capsaicin — the spicy component of mild and hot peppers — reduced the release of pro-inflammatory compounds by adipose tissue in rats with obesity. It also reduced cell damage in the guts of mice (18Trusted Source, 19Trusted Source).
However, human research is needed.
The pimento pepper is related to the habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense), but it’s less spicy. It’s traditionally used to add flavor to myriad cooked dishes, including stews and soups.
SUMMARYThe pimento pepper, a member of the Capsicum pepper family, contains phytochemicals that may have anti-inflammatory properties. However, more human research is needed.
Red sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa), also called roselle, is a mainstay in traditional medicine.
Both animal and human studies found that red sorrel may lower blood pressure and cholesterol. It may also reduce body weight, insulin resistance, and markers of inflammation (20Trusted Source, 21Trusted Source, 22Trusted Source, 23Trusted Source, 24Trusted Source, 25Trusted Source).
One study determined that the plant is a good candidate to investigate for its role as an herbal supplement for cancer prevention and treatment. More human clinical trials are needed, though (26Trusted Source).
Roselle tea is quite popular as a hot or cold beverage. In the Caribbean, fresh and dried leaves of the plant are primarily used to make the traditional Christmastime drink sorrel juice.
SUMMARYRed sorrel, or roselle, tea is a popular beverage that may have anti-inflammatory properties. It may reduce blood pressure, cholesterol, body weight, and insulin resistance.
Extracts of the Passiflora family, including passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), have long been used in herbal medicines to treat anxiety and convulsive disorders (27Trusted Source, 28Trusted Source, 29Trusted Source).
It contains potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds, such as flavonoids, piceatannol, and triterpenoids, which may lower blood pressure, cholesterol, and high blood sugar levels (29Trusted Source, 30Trusted Source, 31Trusted Source).
One study found that piceatannol extract from passion fruit improved insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, and heart rate in men with overweight. However, it didn’t have the same effect on women with moderate weight or women with overweight (32Trusted Source).
More human research is needed.
Passion fruit is tart, but you can eat it raw or make it into juice or lilikoi jelly, a staple breakfast food in Hawaiian culture.
SUMMARYPassion fruit has anti-inflammatory compounds that may help reduce blood sugar and cholesterol. It may also have antihypertensive effects.
Curcumin may have anti-inflammatory health benefits that protect brain health and fight against diabetes, heart disease, bowel disease, arthritis, obesity-related inflammation, and cancer (33Trusted Source, 34Trusted Source, 35Trusted Source, 36Trusted Source, 37Trusted Source, 38Trusted Source).
Curcumin is the active compound in turmeric that provides the spice with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Combining curcumin with piperine, the active ingredient in black pepper, may enhance your body’s curcumin absorption, making more of this powerful compound available to reduce inflammation (39Trusted Source).
In the Caribbean, turmeric is commonly added to dishes prepared with Indian spices, including curry and geera (ground cumin).
SUMMARYCurcumin is the active ingredient in turmeric and is responsible for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Piperine from black pepper may enhance the absorption of curcumin in the body.
Ginger is common in cooked foods and hot beverages throughout the Caribbean.
Its major active components — 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol — improve enzyme pathways related to obesity-induced inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, aging, and neurocognitive diseases (40Trusted Source, 41Trusted Source, 42Trusted Source, 43Trusted Source).
Studies show that whole ginger extract, or 6-shogaol, may reduce chronic lung inflammation. One in vitro study suggests that it could be used as a therapeutic treatment for asthma in the future (43Trusted Source).
However, more human research is needed.
SUMMARYGinger may have anti-inflammatory benefits that protect against rheumatoid arthritis, aging, and neurodegenerative diseases. It’s being studied for potential use as an asthma treatment.
Rats on a high fat diet supplemented with polyphenol extracts from cinnamon bark experienced a reduction in inflammation from adipose tissues and improved insulin resistance (45Trusted Source, 46Trusted Source).
However, human studies have yielded conflicting results.
For instance, one review showed that supplementation with cinnamon significantly reduced most markers of inflammation (47Trusted Source).
But on the other hand, two clinical trials in people with type 2 diabetes showed that cinnamon supplementation reduced cholesterol levels, but inconsistently reduced markers of inflammation (48Trusted Source, 49Trusted Source).
More research is needed, but studies suggest that cinnamon may be used as an adjunct to conventional medicine to combat inflammation.
SUMMARYCinnamon is a popular spice that may reduce blood sugar levels and cholesterol, but more human research on its potential anti-inflammatory properties is needed.
In addition to fueling your diet with nutritious, anti-inflammatory foods, it’s important that your lifestyle habits do not contribute to high levels of inflammation.
Poor sleep — specifically, sleep disturbances — is linked to compromised immune health and increased inflammation (50Trusted Source, 51Trusted Source, 52Trusted Source, 53Trusted Source, 54Trusted Source, 55Trusted Source).
Furthermore, emotional and psychological stress are associated with poor cardiovascular health and may raise your risk of experiencing acute coronary heart disease events (56Trusted Source).
What you can do:
- Aim for 7–9 hours of sleep per night. The National Sleep Foundation recommends that adults 18 years and older get a minimum of 7 hours of sleep per night (57).
- Move your body. Moderate-intensity exercise may reduce inflammation and depression. Most people should engage in 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise each week, along with at least 2 days of muscle-strengthening exercises (58Trusted Source, 59Trusted Source).
- Manage your stress levels. Take care of your emotional health by making time to unwind, connecting with friends and family, or seeking support through therapy with a licensed professional.
SUMMARYPoor sleep quality and high stress levels may increase inflammation, as well as your risk of developing heart disease. Aim for 7–9 hours of sleep, get sufficient exercise, and manage your emotional health to fight inflammation.
Chronic inflammation can increase your risk of chronic illnesses, including diabetes, heart disease, and cancer.
Cultural foods, such as red sorrel, turmeric, and passion fruit, contain phytochemicals with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that may support your health.
Be sure to support an anti-inflammatory diet by getting enough sleep, exercising, and managing your emotional health.